Referencing and Bibliographies
You will be given more advice on how to avoid plagiarism and about how to reference your sources and use bibliographies in the Approaches to Study module. However, there are a number of ways to reference and the most important thing is that you adopt a consistent approach. Your module lecturer will go over the system of referencing that they prefer you to use during the early weeks of each module. The ‘Harvard system’ is one popular method and is widely used on Higher Education Introductory Studies modules. What follows is an example of how to include references within a piece of writing.
References within your piece of writing: Insert author and date of publication and, if relevant, page numbers in the text. For example:
Most study skills books have sections on time management which are particularly useful for part time students trying to balance the demands of study, work, families and leisure. Drew and Bingham (1997) give an example of a planning chart that can be adapted……….
Some authors suggest using mind maps to help when you are trying to get your ideas sorted as part of planning an essay: ‘mind maps refer to two different processes - getting ideas and inspiration and making notes' (Rose, 2001: 91). Cottrell (2008) suggests that students who learn best using visual stimuli, or who have dyslexia, may prefer study skills books with lively illustrations which make them easier to use for quick reference. The web site http://www.palgrave.com/skills4study/
introduces valuable guidance on the essay writing process in a visual way to assist the student who finds this method of learning most effective.
Reference list at end of a piece of work:
Provide a list of the references (those resources explicitly referred to in your writing) at the end of a task or piece writing. (Author, Date, Title, Place of Publication, Publisher) For example:
Burns,T. and Sinfield,S. (2003) Essential Study Skills: The Complete Guide to Success @ University, London, Sage
Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Drew, S. and Bingham, R. (1997) The Student Skills Guide, London, Gower
Rose, J. (2001) The Mature Students Guide to Writing, Basingstoke, Palgrave
When you use the Harvard System, you are usually only required to produce a reference list of sources directly cited in your piece of work. However, your tutor may ask you to produce a bibliography as well as a reference list. A bibliography will include other sources that you have consulted when preparing your assignment but which you have not directly cited in your writing. These should be listed in the same way as the reference list above.
Notice that it is the convention to list in alphabetical order.
How to reference chapters from books:
Stuart, M. (2000) ‘Beyond Rhetoric: reclaiming a radical agenda for active participation in higher education’ in Thompson J (2000) Stretching the Academy: the politics and practice of widening participation in higher education. London, NIACE pp. 23 -35
Corrigan, C. (ed.) (2001) ‘Dyslexia: a guide for staff’, London Institute
Hammond, C. (2001) ‘Is education good for us?’ in Adults Learning Nov 2001 Vol. 13 No 3 NIACE pp.20 -30
Harris, J. (1999) ‘Ways of seeing the recognition of prior learning: contributions to social inclusion’ in Studies in the Education of Adults, Vol. 31 No 2 October 2006 pp. 103 -107
Websiteshttp://www.palgrave.com/skills4study/pd ... /index.asp
(accessed 12th November 2008) i.e. include the date on which you used the site
For further guidance on how to reference see, for example, Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Wikipedia is not considered to be an appropriate academic source and, under most circumstances, you are advised not to use this source for your research. Check with your module lecturer for further details.